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Jaher Vahivat Gujarati PDF Book By Astha Academy

Jaher Vahivat Gujarati PDF Book
The very first Article of our Constitution says, "India, that is 'Bharat', shall be a Union of states." The word 'Union' has been used to mean 'Federation' in the US Constitution. In our Constitution, however, the Union is not a Federation of the type set up by the US Constitution. The Indian Constitution has several features of a Federation like the dual government; distribution of powers between federal and state governments, supremacy of the Constitution and final authority of courts to interpret the Constitution.

On the other hand, there are several unitary features like a unified judicial system; integrated machinery for election, accounts and audit; power of superintendence of union government over state government in emergencies and to some extent even in normal times; single citizenship, etc.
Due to these features, our Constitution lays down a quasi-federal polity. Granville Austin has on the other hand called our Federation a 'Cooperative Federalism' due to the need for close cooperation between the Union government, and the state governments. The purpose here is not to discuss in detail the nature of Indian Federation, but to put the study of state administration in proper context. It is, therefore, enough for us to know that our Constitution envisages a two-tier structure of governance - one at the Union or Central level and the other at the state level.

The powers and functions of the Central or Union government and the state governments are specified in the Constitution. The Union and the state governments function independently in their own spheres. Of course, there is an area of overlapping responsibility and there are certain powers of superintendence.

Jaher Vahivat

Gujarati Book
By Astha Academy

For Download Click below.

Jaher Vahivat Gujarati PDF Book 




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